Golf, which has become a popular sport for many in the US, has always been a difficult game for computer systems to crack.
So how do you beat them?
The answer is simple, the best computer systems are not the most sophisticated.
This year, a new book by two computer scientists called “The Art of the Breakthrough” shows how computer scientists have made big strides in computer-assisted learning.
In this story, the story behind the book is told by the man who was responsible for creating the computer that would make that breakthrough.
Reporter:For years, computer scientists had struggled to break through to the world of the game of golf.
And it was a tough battle, says David Riehle, a professor at the University of California, Irvine.
The game was not easy.
He would say that in his own life, it’s the most difficult thing that I’ve ever had to deal with.
Reporter the professor was one of the original inventors of the computer game.
He and a group of other computer scientists developed the first commercially available chess computer in the early 1970s.
But the chess machine was not very effective.
A lot of the time it was more effective to be able to play the game yourself.
Reporter The book is a compilation of interviews with computer scientists from the fields of Artificial Intelligence, Artificial Neural Networks, and Computer Vision.
The first computer system to do so was built by Dr. David Rieshle in the 1970s, the book’s author says.
That’s when we started to develop algorithms that would actually teach you what to do.
Reporter Dr. Riehrle says there are many strategies available to computer scientists to beat a computer.
They all have one thing in common: they are either very hard to implement, or they don’t scale well.
And I think a lot of them are very hard.
Reporter So, Dr. James W. Krasner, who invented the first chess computer, has an insight into how to make a breakthrough.
He said there are two strategies.
One is to do a lot and then a lot, and then more.
The other is to learn by trial and error.
I think it’s one of my favorite strategies to try to teach yourself.
I try to give you a little bit of information, a little piece of information that you might not have heard before.
That way you can see where it’s going to take you.
So you can be a little more careful.
Reporter Krasners new system, called “Deep Blue,” was designed to teach computer scientists how to beat the game.
The Deep Blue computer beat chess master Garry Kasparov, the first person to defeat the world champion.
And the Deep Blue system was only able to learn from a single game.
So, it was built with a very small set of rules.
It had no ability to understand other games.
So if you were learning the rules of a new game, it didn’t really work.
And that’s a key point.
It’s not going to be easy to teach it to a lot more people.
Reporter To learn how to become the world’s best chess player, Krasors team of computer scientists built a new computer system, “DeepMind.”
DeepMind was the brainchild of a group led by Prof. Daniel A. Levy, who also founded Google.
Levy says the goal of DeepMind is to teach a computer how to play a game by learning from it.
It doesn’t matter if the game is the best chess computer of all time, or whether you’re trying to beat chess at your own game.
It just matters how you play the computer, and that’s what we’re trying.
Reporter In fact, DeepMind had already learned a lot from past computer games, but it wasn’t really trying to make chess any more complicated.
So they started with a small set.
And they started to teach DeepMind how to learn new things.
Reporter Levy says that’s when he realized, that the system would actually have a big advantage over other computer systems.
So it took two years of work, and a lot development time.
I had a group around me of scientists, and I built it out of Lego blocks.
And so it was really quite a challenge, I think, to get it to the point where it could teach itself.
Reporter When you’re building something out of bricks, you get to see what happens, and how it changes.
It wasn’t until the end of the two-year development that they had the system capable of playing against an expert player.
They learned something new and the system had to learn a lot in order to master that player.
Dr. Levy believes that the DeepMind system, which he calls a chess champion, was not meant to be used to defeat a human.
But it was actually a great tool for teaching computer scientists.
That is, to help them learn from one another.
Reporter As they continue to work on their system, the